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Illustrated specimen not reported in, and apparently not located by, Paepke Gymnotus albus Gmelin, : Syntypes: On Gymnotum album Pallas : 36 and Seba : pl. Gymnotus fasciatus Gmelin, : Type locality: Brasiliae. Syntypes: On Gymnotum fasciatum Pallas : 35 , Seba : pl. Remarks: Synonymy must be considered tentative as most names are based on multiple literature sources, which may refer to different species, and lectotype designations have not been found for any of the names. Eschmeyer et al. Redescribed in Albert, Crampton b. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco drainages, coastal drainages of the Guianas and northeastern Brazil, and Trinidad Albert, Crampton, b.

Gymnotus cataniapo Mago-Leccia, : 90, fig. Gymnotus chaviro Maxime, Albert, Gymnotus chaviro Maxime, Albert, : , figs. Type locality: Peru, Dept. Gymnotus choco Albert, Crampton, Maldonado-Ocampo, Gymnotus coatesi La Monte, : 1, fig. Type locality: Amazon River, Brazil. Rhamphichthys cingulatus Brind, : 5, unnumbered fig. Type locality: one of the side streams which connect with the main stream of the Amazon River on its southern bank, about three hundred miles from Para at the mouth of the river.

Syntypes 2 : private collection of author, possibly not saved; about 8 inches TL. Brind mentions additional specimens at the New York Aquarium and a pet shop, but it is not clear whether he actually viewed them or was just relaying information of their presence from other sources. Remarks: Redescribed in Crampton, Albert Synonymy follows Campos-da-Paz b , with a note suggesting that the holotype of Gymnotus coatesi may have been one of the specimens observed by Brind.

Shih, pers. Gymnotus coropinae Hoedeman, a : 55, fig. Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, Gymnotus curupira Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, : 84, fig. Gymnotus cylindricus La Monte, : 2. Gymnotus diamantinensis Campos-da-Paz, Gymnotus diamantinensis Campos-da-Paz, : , fig.

Type locality: Creek riacho 1 trib.

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Gymnotus esmeraldas Albert, Crampton, Gymnotus esmeraldas Albert, Crampton, b : 30, fig. Gymnotus henni Albert, Crampton, Maldonado-Ocampo Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, Carapus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, , in Valenciennes, : Poissons pl. Remarks: Redescribed in Maxime, Albert ; specimen previously reported Bertin, as holotype MNHN is apparently not the illustrated specimen reported as 0.

Gymnotus interruptus Rangel-Pereira, Gymnotus interruptus Rangel-Pereira, : , fig. Gymnotus javari Albert, Crampton, Hagedorn, Gymnotus jonasi Albert, Crampton, : , fig. Gymnotus maculosus Albert, Miller, : , fig. Gymnotus mamiraua Albert, Crampton, : , fig. Gymnotus melanopleura Albert, Crampton, Gymnotus melanopleura Albert, Crampton, : , fig.

Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, Gymnotus obscurus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, : 91, fig. Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton, Albert, Gymnotus omarorum Richer-de-Forges, Crampton, Albert, : , fig. Gymnotus onca Albert, Crampton, : , fig. Gymnotus panamensis Albert, Crampton, Gymnotus panamensis Albert, Crampton, b : 43, fig. Remarks: This species was first reported as Gymnotus pantanensis in Albert et al.

Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, Giton fasciatus var. Distribution: Coastal drainages in southeastern Brazil Campos-da-Paz, Gymnotus paraguensis Albert, Crampton, Gymnotus paraguensis Albert, Crampton, b : Type locality: Itapua, Arroyo Tembey, 7. Gymnotus pedanopterus Mago-Leccia, Gymnotus pedanopterus Mago-Leccia, : 92, fig. Gymnotus refugio Giora, Malabarba, Gymnotus refugio Giora, Malabarba, : , fig. Gymnotus stenoleucus Mago-Leccia, : 94, figs. Gymnotus sylvius Albert, Fernandes-Matioli, Gymnotus sylvius Albert, Fernandes-Matioli in Albert et al.

Holotype: LGP Gymnotus tigre Albert, Crampton, Gymnotus tigre Albert, Crampton, b : 36, fig. Holotype: UF ; mm TL. Gymnotus tiquie Maxime, Lima, Albert, Gymnotus tiquie Maxime, Lima, Albert, : 78, figs. Gymnotus ucamara Crampton, Lovejoy, Albert, Gymnotus ucamara Crampton, Lovejoy, Albert, : 5, fig. Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, Gymnotus varzea Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, : 94, fig.

Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, munic. Hypopomidae Mago-Leccia, : Type genus: Hypopomus Gill, Brachyhypopominae Albert, : Type genus: Brachyhypopomus Mago-Leccia, Microsternarchini Albert, : Remarks: The genera Hypopygus and Steatogenys , their synonyms, and the available species-group names that are associated with those genera are moved to the Rhamphichthyidae, following Tagliacollo et al. Brachyhypopomus Mago-Leccia, : Type species: Rhamphichthys brevirostris Steindachner, Odontohypopomus Sullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, : 6. Proposed as a subgenus of Brachyhypopomus.

Remarks: See Remarks in account of Hypopomus for explanation of gender of these two names. Brachyhypopomus alberti Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus alberti Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Type locality: Bolivia, Beni, mun. Riberalta - stream nr. Riberalta, aff. Brachyhypopomus arrayae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus arrayae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Type locality: Bolivia, Beni, Mun. Riberalta - small stream nr. Brachyhypopomus batesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus batesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig.

Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Mun. Brachyhypopomus beebei Schultz, Hypopomus beebei Schultz, : 40, fig. Brachyhypopomus belindae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus belindae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Brachyhypopomus benjamini Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus benjamini Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig.

Type locality: Peru, Loreto, Mun. Requena, nr. Brachyhypopomus bennetti Sullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, Brachyhypopomus bombilla Loureiro, Silva, Brachyhypopomus bombilla Loureiro, Silva, : , fig. Brachyhypopomus brevirostris Steindachner, Rhamphichthys brevirostris Steindachner, a : Lectotype designated in Schindler : 23 ; illustrated in Crampton et al.

Brachyhypopomus bullocki Sullivan, Hopkins, Brachyhypopomus bullocki Sullivan, Hopkins, : , fig. Brachyhypopomus cunia Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus cunia Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Holotype: whereabouts unknown; mm TL. Brachyhypopomus draco Giora, Malabarba, Crampton, Brachyhypopomus draco Giora, Malabarba, Crampton, : , figs. Brachyhypopomus flavipomus Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus flavipomus Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig.

Brachyhypopomus gauderio Giora, Malabarba, Brachyhypopomus gauderio Giora, Malabarba, : 62, figs. Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Brachyhypopomus hendersoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus hendersoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Brachyhypopomus janeiroensis Costa, Campos-da-Paz, Hypopomus janeiroensis Costa, Campos-da-Paz, , figs. Brachyhypopomus jureiae Triques, Khamis, Brachyhypopomus jureiae Triques, Khamis, : 62, fig.

Brachyhypopomus menezesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus menezesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Brachyhypopomus occidentalis Regan, Hypopomus occidentalis Regan, : Syntypes: BMNH Syntype mm TL illustrated in Crampton et al. Brachyhypopomus palenque Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus palenque Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig.

Santo Domingo, small rain forest stream, aff. Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian, Bass, Hypopomus pinnicaudatus Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian, Bass, : , fig. Lectotype designated by Crampton et al. Remarks: Traditional taxonomically formatted description in Hopkins , but necessary elements of a new species description all appeared first in Hopkins et al. Lectotype is specimen intended by Hopkins to be holotype.

Brachyhypopomus provenzanoi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus provenzanoi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Mun. Brachyhypopomus regani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus regani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig.

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Distribution: Widely distributed in Amazon basin, and in Orinoco, Essequibo and other coastal drainages of Guyana Crampton et al. Brachyhypopomus sullivani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus sullivani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Requena, stream nr. Jenaro Herrera, affl. Brachyhypopomus verdii Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, Brachyhypopomus verdii Crampton, de Santana, Waddell, Lovejoy, b : , fig. Maynas, Jenaro Herrera, stream, nr. Jenaro Herrera - Colonia Angamos rd.

Brachyhypopomus walteri Sullivan, Zuanon, Cox Fernandes, Hypopomus Gill, : Type species: Rhamphichthys mulleri Kaup, Type species: Rhamphichthys artedi Kaup, Proposed as a subgenus of Rhamphichthys.


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Parupygus Hoedeman, a : Type species: Parupygus savannensis Hoedeman, Remarks: The gender of Hypopomus was not stated in Gill ; and has been treated as feminine in Mago-Leccia , Eschmeyer , and Eschmeyer et al. However, the name appears to be derived from the transliterated Greek word poma operculum , that was assigned a latinized suffix pomus , thereby falling under the provisions of Art.

Rhamphichthys Artedi Kaup, : , fig. Type locality: The Mona, a river in French Guiana, and locality of specimen illustrated in Seba : pl. Syntypes: MNHN ; 11 in. TL, and Seba specimen; 17 in. Rhamphichthys Mulleri Kaup, : , fig. Type locality: Cayenne [French Guiana]. Syntypes: 2, larger one Parupygus savannensis Hoedeman, a : 58, fig. Type locality: Surinam, Sipaliwini, Paru savannah, sta. Parupygus litaniensis Hoedeman, b : 98, fig. Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert, Crampton a. Eigenmann, Ward : serves as first reviser in treating R. This suggests the current synonymy may need to be reexamined.

Distribution: Widely distributed in Guianas Albert, Crampton, a. Whereabouts of holotype unknown Cox Fernandes et al. Racenisia Mago-Leccia, : Type species: Racenisia fimbriipinna Mago-Leccia, Racenisia fimbriipinna Mago-Leccia, Racenisia fimbriipinna Mago-Leccia, : 88, figs. Rhamphichthyidae Regan : 23, Type genus: Steatogenys Boulenger, Checklist: Ferraris ; Campos-da-Paz b , Brazil.

Remarks: The genera Hypopygus and Steatogenys , their synonyms, and the available species-group names that are associated with those genera are moved here from the Hypopomidae, following Tagliacollo et al. Gymnorhamphichthys Ellis, in Eigenmann, : , Type species: Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, Also appeared as new in Ellis Gender: feminine?

Gymnorhamphichthys bogardusae Lundberg, Gymnorhamphichthys bogardusi Lundberg, : 2, figs. Distribution: Mainstream of Orinoco River and its tributaries draining the llanos, Venezuela Lundberg, Remarks: Gender of the species name changed to reflect the stated etymology in the original description. Gymnorhamphichthys britskii Carvalho, Ramos, Albert, Gymnorhamphichthys britskii Carvalho, Ramos, Albert, : , figs. Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, Gymnorhamphichthys hypostomus Ellis, in Eigenmann, : Type locality: San Joaquin, Bolivia. Described in more detail, as new, and illustrated in Ellis , pl.

Gymnorhamphichthys rondoni Miranda Ribeiro, Holotype: MNRJ Remarks: Synonymy follows Nijssen et al. Gymnorhamphichthys rosamariae Schwassmann, Gymnorhamphichthys rosamariae Schwassmann, : , fig. Hypopygus Hoedeman, b : Type species: Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, Stegostenopos Triques, : Type species: Stegostenopos cryptogenes Triques, Key to species: de Santana, Crampton ; Peixoto et al. Hypopygus benoneae Peixoto, Dutra, de Santana, Wosiacki, Hypopygus benoneae Peixoto, Dutra, de Santana, Wosiacki, : , fig.

Hypopygus cryptogenes Triques, Stegostenopos cryptogenes Triques, : 33, fig. Hypopygus hoedemani de Santana, Crampton, Hypopygus hoedemani de Santana, Crampton, : , fig. Hypopygus isbruckeri de Santana, Crampton, Hypopygus isbruckeri de Santana, Crampton, : , fig. Type locality: Venezuela. Holotype: UF ; 90 mm TL. Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, b : 99, fig. Type locality: Surinam: Maroni basin.

Hypopygus minissimus de Santana, Crampton, Hypopygus minissimus de Santana, Crampton, : , fig. Holotype: UF ; 54 mm TL. Hypopygus neblinae Mago-Leccia, : 86, fig.

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Hypopygus nijsseni de Santana, Crampton, Hypopygus nijsseni de Santana, Crampton, : , figs. Hypopygus ortegai de Santana, Crampton, Hypopygus ortegai de Santana, Crampton, : , figs. Type locality: Peru, Loreto, unnamed stream, 2 km north of km 3. Iracema Triques, b : Type species: Iracema caiana Triques, Iracema caiana Triques, b : 91, fig.

Type locality: Jauaperi River, beach ca. Remarks: Redescribed with comments on phylogenetic position in Carvalho, Albert Type species: Altona rostrata [ Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus, ]. Single included species written as Altona rostrata , apparently referring to Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus.

Remarks: Inclusion in Rhamphichthys follows Schwassmann Rhamphichthys atlanticus Triques, a : 3, fig. Rhamphichthys drepanium Triques, a : 1, figs. Sternarchorhamphus hahni Meinken, : 79, fig. Rhamphichthys heleios Carvalho, Albert, Rhamphichthys heleios Carvalho, Albert, : 35, figs. Rhamphichthys lineatus Castelnau, : 87, pl. Rhamphichthys longior Triques, a : 4. Remarks: Validity questioned by Carvalho, Albert , but name not assigned to any other species. Rhamphichthys pantherinus Castelnau, Rhamphichthys pantherinus Castelnau, : 86, pl.

Rhamphichthys marmoratus Castelnau, : 86, pl. Later, apparently starting with Eigenmann, Eigenmann : 62 , R. Rhamphichthys rostratus Linnaeus, Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus, : Syntypes: On Seba : pl. Syntypes: On several literature sources, including account of Gymnotus rostratus in Gmelin , Seba : pl. Rhamphichthys Blochii Kaup, : , fig. Syntypes: On specimen described and illustrated in Bloch, Schneider , pl. TL, and Seba : pl. Rhamphichthys Reinhardti Kaup, : , fig.

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Type locality: unknown. Holotype: MNHN , Rhamphichthys Schneideri Kaup, : , fig. Type locality: Cayenne. Syntypes: 2, one 2. Rhamphichthys Schomburgki Kaup, : , fig. Type locality: Rivers of Demerara, British Guiana. Remarks: Synonymy tentative. Eigenmann, Eigenmann : 62 later took the opposite approach and treated R. Steindachner would serve as first reviser if R. Steatogenys Boulenger, : Type species: Rhamphichthys elegans Steindachner, Tateichthys La Monte, : 1. Type species: Tateichthys duidae La Monte, Tateichthys duidae La Monte, : 1, fig.

Type locality: Burned Mountain Creek, ca. Duida neighborhood, Venezuela. Distribution: Orinoco basin and parts of Amazon basin Crampton et al. Steatogenys elegans Steindachner, Rhamphichthys Brachyrhamphichthys elegans Steindachner, : 89 footnote. Rhamphichthys Brachyrhampichthys mirabilis Steindachner, : figure caption , pl. Name on caption to plate; likely an unintentional alternate although still available name for Rhamphichthys Brachyrhamphichthys elegans. Remarks: Eigenmann, Ward : treated Rhamphichthys Brachyrhamphichthys elegans [as Steatogenes elegans ] as valid over Rhamphichthys Brachyrhamphichthys mirabilis , thereby serving as first reviser.

Steatogenys ocellatus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, Steatogenys ocellatus Crampton, Thorsen, Albert, : 81, fig. Sternopygidae Cope, : , Type genus: Eigenmannia Jordan, Evermann, Checklist: Albert b ; Campos-da-Paz a , Brazil. Remarks: The names Archaeogymnotoidea and Archaeogymnotinae, which appear in Mago-Leccia : 14 , are not available inasmuch as they are not based on available generic names ICZN Art.

Archolaemus , Eigenmannia , Rhabdolichops , and Distocyclus were removed from the Sternopygidae and placed into the Eigenmannidae in Alves-Gomes et al. Eigenmannia goajira Schultz, : 63, pl. Remarks: Position of this species within the family is unresolved Dutra et al. Archolaemus Korringa, : Type species: Archolaemus blax Korringa, Archolaemus blax Korringa, : , figs.

Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, : , fig. Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, : , fig. Distribution: Xingu and upper Tapajos river basins, Brazil Vari et al. Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, : , figs. Archolaemus orientalis Stewart, Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana, Wosiacki, : , fig. Distocyclus Mago-Leccia, : 17, Type species: Eigenmannia conirostris Eigenmann, Allen, Remarks: Revised in Dutra et al.

Distocyclus conirostris Eigenmann, Allen, Eigenmannia conirostris Eigenmann, Allen, : , pl. A holotype was distinguished from paratypes in the original description only by length mm and numerous body measurements. Of the five original specimens mm , none of the four examined by Dutra et al. The fifth specimen, which thus appears to be the holotype, is unaccounted for. Cryptops Eigenmann, Type species: Sternopygus humboldtii Steindachner [ ]. Eigenmannia Jordan, Evermann, : key , Type species: Sternopygus humboldtii Steindachner, Type by being a replacement name.

Replacement for Cryptops Eigenmann, , preoccupied by Cryptops Leach, Revision and key: Peixoto et al. Eigenmannia antonioi Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia antonioi Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs. Eigenmannia besouro Peixoto, Wosiacki, : , fig. Eigenmannia desantanai Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia desantanai Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs. Eigenmannia guairaca Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia guairaca Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs. Eigenmannia humboldtii Steindachner, Sternopygus Humboldtii Steindachner, : Type locality: Magdalenen-Stromes [Colombia].

Described in more detail and illustrated in Steindachner : 71, pl. Eigenmannia limbata Schreiner, Miranda Ribeiro, Sternopygus limbatus Schreiner, Miranda Ribeiro, : Type locality: Amazonas [Brazil]. Remarks: Treated as synonym of Eigenmannia virescens in Fowler , but as valid in Albert b. Sternopygus macrops Boulenger, : Remarks: Name written as Eigenmannia microps in Eigenmann : , apparently a lapsus calami and not treated here as an available name. Eigenmannia matintapereira Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia matintapereira Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs.

Eigenmannia microstoma Reinhardt, Sternopygus microstomus Reinhardt, : Type locality: Lagoa Santa, Brazil. ZMB 1. Eigenmannia muirapinima Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia muirapinima Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs. Eigenmannia nigra Mago-Leccia, : 77, figs. Eigenmannia pavulagem Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia pavulagem Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs.

Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, a : 3, figs. Remarks: Redescribed in Bichuette, Trajano and Peixoto et al. Eigenmannia virescens Valenciennes, Sternachus virescens Valenciennes, , in Valenciennes, : Poissons pl. Type or types: whereabouts unknown. Name made available by caption to figure; mentioned in Valenciennes : 11 , without locality or descriptive characters.

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Type locality: Guiana, im See Amucu. Eigenmannia waiwai Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, Eigenmannia waiwai Peixoto, Dutra, Wosiacki, : , figs. Type by by being a replacement name. Described in more detail in Gayet et al. Remarks: Treated as the sister to a group encompassing all gymnotiforms except the Apteronotidae in Gayet et al. Rhabdolichops Eigenmann, Allen, : Type species: Rhabdolichops longicaudatus Eigenmann, Allen, Rhabdolichops eastwardi Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, Rhabdolichops eastwardi Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, : 76, figs.

Rhabdolichops electrogrammus Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, Rhabdolichops electrogrammus Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, : 70, figs. Rhabdolichops jegui Keith, Meunier, Rhabdolichops jegui Keith, Meunier, : , figs. Rhabdolichops lundbergi Correa, Crampton, Albert, Rhabdolichops lundbergi Correa, Crampton, Albert, : 34, figs. Rhabdolichops navalha Correa, Crampton, Albert, Rhabdolichops navalha Correa, Crampton, Albert, : 35, figs.

Rhabdolichops nigrimans Correa, Crampton, Albert, Rhabdolichops nigrimans Correa, Crampton, Albert, : 30, figs. Rhabdolichops stewarti Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, Rhabdolichops stewarti Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, : 79, fig. Sternopygus Troscheli Kaup, : Type locality: British Guiana. Lectotype designated in Lundberg, Mago-Leccia : Type locality: Para [Brazil]. Rhabdolichops longicaudatus Eigenmann, Allen, : , pl.

Rhabdolichops zareti Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, Rhabdolichops zareti Lundberg, Mago-Leccia, : 74, figs. Type species: Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, Type by subsequent designation, herein. Gymnotes Gill, : Type species: Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humb[oldt, ]. As no available species names were listed in the account of Sternopygus , it is necessary to select a type species from among the first listed nominal species in a subsequent account of the genus, following Code Art.

Therein, four nominal species were listed as being included in the genus: S. No designations from among those names has been found. Inasmuch as two of the names available for selection as type species are currently assigned to the genus Eigenmannia , it is necessary to select a type that will stabilize Sternopygus as well as not disrupt the validity of Eigenmannia.

To accomplish those goals, we select herein Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, , as type of Sternopygus. Key: Albert, Fink ; Hulen et al. Sternopygus aequilabiatus Humboldt, Sternopygus dariensis Meek, Hildebrand, : , pl. Sternopygus arenatus Eydoux, Souleyet, Carapus arenatus Eydoux, Souleyet, : , pl. Sternopygus astrabes Mago-Leccia, : 79, fig. Sternopygus castroi Triques, b : 21, fig. Sternopygus branco Crampton, Hulen, Albert, Sternopygus branco Crampton, Hulen, Albert, a: , fig. Sternopygus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch, Schneider, : Type locality: Brasilia.

Syntype: ZMB stuffed. Described and illustrated earlier as: Gymnotus carapo , and Gymnotus macrourus maxilla superior longiore , in Bloch 59, pl. As such, the specimen at ZMB must be considered a syntype and not a holotype as widely reported. Carapus macrourus Cuvier, footnote 2.

Type locality: [Brazil]. Holotype: Illustrated specimen in Bloch : pl. Sternopygus Marcgravii Reinhardt, : Carapus sanguinolentus Castelnau, : 85, pl. Type locality: Sarapo Piauhy, Brazil. Remarks: Synonymy follows Albert b. Sternopygus obtusirostris Steindachner, Sternopygus obtusirostris Steindachner, b : , pl.

Remarks: Redescribed in Crampton, Hulen, Albert b. Sternopygus pejeraton Schultz, : 60, pl. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin Schultz, ; Albert, b. Sternopygus xingu Albert, Fink, : 90, figs. Gymnonotus Bloch, Schneider, : Included species: G. Widely reported as an unjustified emendation for Gymnotus , but not so indicated in the account.

Gymnotus aequilabiatus nigriceps Ihering, : Type locality: [Brazil] Boa Vista, Est. Type locality: Tropical America. Types: On numerous specimens and literature accounts. Name perhaps intended as a correction for Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, which is listed in the account, but its status as an unjustified emendation is confounded by the range of specimens and other literature citations included in the account. We also thank Ricardo Campos-da-Paz for his thorough review of an earlier version of this paper.

Albert JS. Species diversity and phylogenetic systematics of American knifefishes Gymnotiformes, Teleostei. Miscellaneous Publications; Apteronotidae Ghost knifefishes. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs. Sternopygidae Glass knifefishes, Rattail knifefishes. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs ; b. Phylogenetic systematics of Gymnotiformes with diagnoses of 58 clades: a review of available data. Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes.

Porto Alegre: Edipucrs ; Five new species of Gymnotus Teleostei: Gymnotiformes from an Upper Amazon floodplain, with descriptions of electric organ discharges and ecology. Ichthyol Explor Freshw. Hypopomidae Bluntnose knifefishes. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs ; a. Seven new species of the Neotropical electric fish Gymnotus Teleostei, Gymnotiformes with a redescription of G. Diversity and phylogeny of Neotropical electric fishes Gymnotiformes. New York: Springer. Pariosternarchus amazonensis : a new genus and species of Neotropical electric fish Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae from the Amazon River. A new species of electric knifefish, genus Compsaraia Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae from the Amazon River, with extreme sexual dimorphism in snout and jaw length.

Syst Biodivers. Phylogenetic systematics and historical biogeography of the Neotropical electric fish Gymnotus Teleostei: Gymnotidae. New species of Gymnotus Gymnotiformes, Teleostei from Southeastern Brazil: toward the deconstruction of Gymnotus carapo. Sternopygus xingu , a new species of electric fish from Brazil Teleostei: Gymnotoidei , with comments on the phylogenetic position of Sternopygus. Gymnotus maculosus, a new species of electric fish Chordata: Teleostei: Gymnotoidei from Middle America, with a key to species of Gymnotus. Proc Biol Soc Wash.

First record of Gymnotus henni Albert, Crampton, Maldonado, in Panama: phylogenetic position and electrical signal characterization. Check List. A unique sex chromosome system in the knifefish Gymnotus bahianus with inferences about chromosomal evolution of Gymnotidae. J Hered. Pisces, Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae, Brachyhypopomus Mago-Leccia, first country record of three species of the genus, Argentina. Notas Mus La Plata Zool. Alves-Gomes JA. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the South American electric fish Gymnotiformes and an alternative hypothesis for the otophysan historical biogeography.

Gonorynchiformes and Ostariophysan relationships: a comprehensive review. Science Publishers: Enfield. Phylogenetic analysis of the South American electric fishes Order Gymnotiformes and the evolution of their electrogenic system: a synthesis based on morphology, electrophysiology and mitochondrial sequence data. Mol Biol Evol. Bertin L. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. Bichuette ME, Trajano E.

Morphology and distribution of the cave knifefish Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae from central Brazil, with an expanded diagnosis and comments on subterranean evolution. Neotrop Ichthyol. Bloch ME. Systema ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit. Berlin: Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. Bonaparte CL. Conspectus systematis ichthyologiae; Editio reformata , Lugduni Batavorum, [not seen]. Bonnaterre JP. Paris: Chez Panckoucke; Boulenger GA.

An account of the fishes collected by Mr. Buckley in eastern Ecuador. Proc Zool Soc London. Description of a new gymnotine fish of the genus Sternopygus. Ann Mag Nat Hist. On a collection of fishes from the Rio Jurua, Brazil.

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